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International Patent Classification (IPC) system

Patent classification is a system of sorting inventions and their documents into technical fields covering all areas of technology.

Every patent document, regardless of whether it is an application or a granted patent, is given a classification symbol by the examiner indicating its allocation to a specific area of technology.


Benefits of patent classification

Patent classification systems make it easier to file and retrieve patent documents.

When performing searches, patent examiners, inventors and companies need to obtain results that are as accurate as possible. State-of-the-art searches would be virtually impossible without classification, because searching with keywords can often produce inaccurate and incomplete results due to the language in which patent documents are written and the terms used.


The IPC system

Patent documents are classified according to different classification systems depending on the patent granting authority concerned. The most important classification system is the International Patent Classification (IPC).

Introduced in 1968, the IPC is used by all patent offices worldwide, some of which also use a national classification system. The IPC has a hierarchical structure and is subdivided into sections, classes, subclasses, groups and subgroups. One of the most precise classification systems available, the IPC currently divides technology into around 70,000 sub-areas.


Areas of technology

In the IPC, the technology is divided into eight main sections:


  • A Human Necessities
  • B Performing Operations; Transporting
  • C Chemistry; Metallurgy
  • D Textiles; Paper
  • E Fixed Constructions
  • F Mechanical Engineering; Lighting; Heating; Weapons; Blasting Engines or Pumps
  • G Physics
  • H Electricity

IPC divisions


The IPC has a systematic and hierarchical structure. Classification becomes more detailed with every further (sub)division, as you can see in this example: Level

Symbol

Decription

Section

A

Human necessities

Class

A21

Baking; edible doughs

Subclass

A21C

Machines or equipment for processing doughs

Group

A21C1

Mixing or kneading machine for the preparation of dough

Subgroup

A21C1/06

With horizontally-mounted mixing or kneading tools

Visit the WIPO website to find more information about the IPC.

Browse and search the IPC online HERE.


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